The Paris Agreement was adopted by the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 12 December 2015 at COP21 in Paris, France. According to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, adoption is the formal act that defines the form and content of an agreement. In adopting the Paris Agreement, each Party accepted the text of the Paris Agreement. This does not mean that parties to the UNFCCC automatically become parties to the Paris Agreement. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses the mitigation, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The wording of the Convention was adopted by the representatives of 196 Contracting States to the 21. Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC at Le Bourget near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.   By February 2020, the 196 members of the UNFCCC had signed the agreement and 189 had become parties to the agreement.  Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, the only major emitters are Iran and Turkey. The Paris Agreement has a “bottom-up” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top-down” and are characterized by internationally defined norms and goals to be implemented by states.
 Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment targets with the force of law, the Paris Agreement, which emphasizes consensus-building, makes it possible to achieve voluntary and nationally defined targets.  Specific climate goals are therefore promoted politically rather than legally binding. Only the processes that govern the preparation of reports and the consideration of these objectives are prescribed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – since there are no legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is considered an “executive agreement rather than a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty has received Senate approval, this new agreement does not need further congressional legislation for it to enter into force.  When the agreement received enough signatures on October 5, 2016 to cross the threshold, US President Barack Obama said: “Even if we achieve all the objectives. we will only reach part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change. It will help other countries reduce their emissions over time and set bolder targets as technology advances, all within a robust transparency system that allows each country to assess the progress of all other nations.   It is rare that there is consensus among almost all nations on a single issue. But with the Paris Agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change is driven by human behavior, that it poses a threat to the environment and all of humanity, and that global action is needed to stop it. A clear framework has also been put in place for all countries to make emission reduction commitments and strengthen these measures over time.
Here are some key reasons why the deal is so important: countries are also striving to reach “a global peak in greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible.” The deal has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  They lobbied for language that suggests that other countries should also “be able to do so” (especially since some, like China, are already in practice). .